Study of Instructional Improvement

HLM Model Procedures for Organizational Processes Analysis

The SPSS screenshot below shows that z-scored person-level measures produced from Winsteps (example work found here) have been stacked vertically (longitudinally) for use as Level-1 of a three-level HLM model. However, we did not use a time parameter in our HLM models; instead, we used the mean average report of participants (teachers in this case) across the yearly survey administrations. The example measure is extent to which teachers report receiving "instructional guidance" from the CSR programs.

SPSS - Instructional Guide

The screenshots below show the basic HLM model used by Rowan and Miller (2007), and the settings necessary to create, school-level residuals representing the organizational processes used by CSR programs to promote instructional improvement. Again, the "instructional guidance" scale is used in the example at level-1. At level-2, the control variables included teachers' gender, race, teaching experience and highest degree earned. At level-3, the school controls include the concentration of household poverty within census tract zone, school enrollment, percent minority students and the average WJ-R language score by kindergartners upon entry to a school. The HLM output for this model can be viewed here. The final screenshot shows that the school level residual for teachers' reports of "instructional guidance" have been saved. In turn, the residuals for all 12 measures of organizational process (described here) were displayed as error bars (here).

HLM Model

HLM Residual